References and Resource Links

References

Alleman, H.C., F. Asbury Awl, et. al. History of the 127th Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers. Lebanon, Pennsylvania: Press of Report Publishing Company, 1902.

Allentown Democrat and Allentown Leader, The, in Historic American Newspapers Collection. U.S. Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.: 1840-1922.

A New Surge of Growth,” and Urban German,” in “Immigration and Relocation in U.S. History,” in “Classroom Materials.” Washington, DC: U.S. Library of Congress, retrieved online 4 July 2021.

Baer, George Frederick. “The Unveiling of the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument,” in Addresses and Writings of George F. Baer: Including His Argument before the Anthracite Coal Strike Commission: Collected by his Son-in-law William N. Appel. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Self-published by William N. Appel, 1916.

Bailey, Joseph. “Report on the construction of the dam across the Red River,” in Report of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, at the Second Session Thirty-Eighth Congress, Red River Expedition, Fort Fisher Expedition, Heavy Ordnance. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1865.

Banks, Nathaniel P. “General Banks’s Report of the Red River Campaign,” in Annual Report of the Secretary of War, in Message of the President of the United States, and Accompanying Documents, to the Two Houses of Congress, at the Commencement of the First Session of the Thirty-Ninth Congress. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1866.

Basler, Roy P., editor, et. al. Collected works. The Abraham Lincoln Association/Springfield, Illinois. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1953.

Bates, Samuel P. History of Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-5, Prepared in Compliance with Acts of the Legislature, vol. 1, 1150-1190. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: B. Singerly, State Printer, 1869.

Beers, J. H. & Co. Biographical Annals of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania: Containing Biographical and Genealogical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens and Many of the Early Settlers. Chicago, Illinois: 1903.

Beers, J. H. & Co. Commemorative Biographical Record of Central Pennsylvania. Chicago, Illinois: 1898.

Bell, Herbert C. History of Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, Including Its Aboriginal History; the Colonial and Revolutionary Periods; Early Settlement and Subsequent Growth; Political Organization; Agricultural, Mining, and Manufacturing Interests; Internal Improvements; Religious, Educational, Social, and Military History; Sketches of Its Boroughs, Villages, and Townships; Portraits and Biographies of Pioneers and Representative Citizens, Etc., Etc. Chicago, Illinois: Brown, Runk, & Co. Publishers: 1891.

Berlin, Alfred F., et. al. Proceedings and Papers Read Before the Lehigh County Historical Society. Allentown, Pennsylvania: Lehigh County Historical Society, 1922.

Bollet, Alfred J. Rheumatic Diseases Among Civil War Troops,” in Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 34, no. 9, September 1991, pp. 1197-1203. Atlanta, Georgia: Arthritis Foundation.

Brown, A.M., Rev. W. Y. The Army Chaplain: His Office, Duties, and Responsibilities, and the Means of Aiding Him. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: William S. A. Alfred Martien, 1863.

Bureau of Archives and History, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Pennsylvania Veterans Burial Cards. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1861-1930.

Burns, Ric, et. al. “Death and the Civil War,” on The American Experience. Boston and Washington, D.C.: WGBH and PBS, 2012.

Carmichael, Peter. Please Don’t Cut Off My Leg?Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: The College of Physicians of Philadelphia and Mutter Museum, 2014.

Carter, Susan B. et. al. (eds.) Historical Statistics of the United States (Millennial Edition). New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Cohn, Raymond L., and Simone A. Wegge. Overseas Passenger Fares and Emigration from Germany in the Mid-Nineteenth Century,” in Social Science History, Vol. 41, No. 3, Fall 2017, pp. 393-413. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Condit A.M., Rev. Uzal. The History of Easton, Penn’a from the Earliest Times to the Present, 1739-1885. Washington, D.C.: West & Condit, 1885.

da Costa, Jacob Mendez. “Observations on the diseases of the heart noticed among soldiers, particularly the organic diseases,” in “Contributions relating to the Causation and Prevention of Disease, and to Camp Diseases; together with a Report of the Diseases, etc., Among the Prisoners at Andersonville, GA.” New York: United States Sanitary Commission and Hurd and Houghton, 1867.

da Costa, Jacob Mendez. “On Irritable Heart; a Clinical Study of a Form of Functional Cardiac Disorder and its Consequences: Age in “Two Hundred Cases. Result in 200 Cases,” in The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Vol. 61, No. 121, p. 17. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: January 1871.

Cotroneo, Joel R. and Jack Dozier. A Time of Disintegration: The Coeur d’Alene and the Dawes Act,” in Western Historical Quarterly, vol. 5, no. 4, October 1974. New York, New York: Oxford University Press.

Day, Sherman. Historical Collections of the State of Pennsylvania; Containing a Copious Selection of the Most Interesting Facts, Traditions, Biographical Sketches, Anecdotes, etc. Relating to Its History and Antiquities, Both General and Local, with Topographical Descriptions of Every County and All the Larger Towns in the State. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: George W. Gorton, 1843.

Der Lecha County Patriot, in Historic Newspapers Collection. U.S. Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.: 1861-1922.

Ellis, Franklin and Austin N. Hungerford, ed. History of That Part of the Susquehanna and Juniata Valleys, Embraced in the Counties of Mifflin, Juniata, Perry, Union and Snyder, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, vol. I. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Everts, Peck & Richards, 1886.

Fister, Gordon B. Half-Century: The Fifty-Year Story of the Allentown Hospital 1899-1949. Allentown, Pennsylvania: The Allentown Hospital Association, 1949.

Gausler, W.H. “Reminiscences of the Lehigh and Delaware Canal from 1840 to 1856,” in The Penn Germania: A Popular Journal of German History and Ideals in the United States, vol. 1, no. 1. Lititz and Cleona, Pennsylvania: H.W. Kriebel, editor. Holzapfel Publishing Co, 1912.

Gilbert, Randal B. A New Look at Camp Ford, Tyler Texas: The Largest Confederate Prison Camp West of the Mississippi River (3rd Edition). Tyler, Texas: The Smith County Historical Society, 2010.

Gillett, Mary C. The Army Medical Department, 1818-1865. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army and the U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987.

Gross, S.D. A Manual of Military Surgery. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1861.

Guernsey, Alfred and Henry M. Alden. Harper’s Pictorial History of the Civil War, Part Second. New York, New York: Harper & Brothers, 1868.

Hain, Harry Harrison. History of Perry County, Pennsylvania. Including Descriptions of Indians and Pioneer Life from the Time of Earliest Settlement. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Hain-Moore Company, 1922.

Hamerow, Theodore S. History and the German Revolution of 1848,” in The American Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 1, October 1954, pp. 27-44. Oxford University Press, 1954.

Hamersly, Lewis Randolph. Biographical Sketches of Distinguished Officers of the Army and Navy. New York: Self-published, 1905.

Hammond, M.A., Rev. J. Pinkney. The Army Chaplain’s Manual: Designed as a Help to Chaplains in the Discharge of Their Various Duties, Both Temporal and Spiritual. Containing Also All the Laws and Regulations in Regard to Chaplains Together with the Proper Steps to Be Taken to Secure a Chaplain’s Appointment. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1863.

Hardee, William Joseph. Hardee’s Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics. Memphis, Tennessee: E. C. Kirk & Co., 1861.

Hauser, James J. A History of Lehigh County From the Earliest Settlements to the Present Time including Much Valuable Information for Schools Families Libraries. Allentown, Pennsylvania: Jacks, the Printer, 1902.

Hawk, Allen J. ArtiFacts: Fighting Wartime Wound Infections with the Carrel-Dakin Method,” in Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, vol. 477, no. 12, December 2019, pp. 2651-2651. New York, New York: Wolters Kluwer.

Hays, M.D., Isaac, editor. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. L. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Blanchard and Lea, 1865.

Henry, Matthew Schropp. History of the Lehigh Valley: Containing a Copious Selection of the Most Interesting Facts, Traditions, Biographical Sketches, Anecdotes, etc., etc., Relating to Its History and Antiquities; with Complete History of All Its Internal Improvements, Progress of the Coal and Iron Trade, Manufactures, etc. Easton, Pennsylvania: Bixler & Corwin, 1860.

Hill, Corinna S. “The Social Integration of Civil War Veterans with Hearing Loss: The Roles of Government and Media” (An Honors Capstone Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Graduation with University Honors). Washington, D.C.: The Honors Program, Gallaudet University, May 2014.

History of Berrien and Van Buren Counties, Michigan: Its Prominent Men and Pioneers. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: D. W. Ensign & Co., 1880.

Horwitz, Tony. Did Civil War Soldiers Have PTSD?, in Smithsonian Magazine, January 2015. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.

IMPORTANT FROM PORT ROYAL.; The Expedition to Jacksonville, DESTRUCTION OF THE REBEL BATTERIES. CAPTURE OF A STEAMBOAT. Another Speech from Gen. Mitchell. His Policy and Sentiments on the Negro Question.” New York, New York: The New York Times, October 20, 1862.

Irwin, Richard Bache. History of the Nineteenth Army Corps. New York, New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1893.

Jones, Jonathan S. Opium Slavery: Civil War Veterans and Opiate Addiction,” in The Journal of the Civil War Era, Vol. 10, No. 2, June 2020, pp. 185-212. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press.

Jones, Jonathan S. Then and Now: How Civil War-Era Doctors Responded to Their Own Opioid Epidemic,” in The Civil War Monitor,” 3 November 2017. Longport, New Jersey: Bayshore History, LLC.

Jordan, John W., Edgar Moore Green and George T. Ettinger, editors. Historic Homes and Institutions and Genealogical and Personal Memoirs of the Lehigh Valley Pennsylvania, vol. II. New York, New York and Chicago, Illinois: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1905.

Juniata Sentinel, in Historic Newspapers Collection. U.S. Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.: 1840-1922.

Kluskens, Claire. “Using Records of Artificial Limbs for Union Civil War Veterans, 1861-1927” (video). Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 14 May 2015.

Lambert, James F. and Henry J. Reinhard. A History of Catasauqua in Lehigh County Pennsylvania. Allentown, Pennsylvania: The Searle & Dressler Co., Inc., 1914.

Levin, Aaron. Civil War Trauma Led to a Combination of Nervous and Physical Disease,” in Psychiatric News. Washington, D.C.: The American Psychiatric Association, 21 April 2006.

Life and Limb: The Toll of the American Civil War. Bethesda, Maryland: U.S. National Library of Medicine, retrieved online December 2015.

Loss of the U.S. steam transport Pocahontas as reported in The New York Times. New York, New York: 1864:

  • “Sad Calamity – A Steamship Sunk at Sea”: Collision Between the Steamer City of Bath and Steamship Pocohontas. The Pocohontas Lost and Forty Lives Lost, in The New York Times, 3 June 1864; and
  • “The Loss of the Pocahontas.; Report of M.M. Benschoten, Chief Clerk of the United States Steamship Pocahontas, as to the Disaster Off Cape May, on the Night of the 1st Instant, Caused by the Collision of Said Ship with the Steam Transport City of Bath,” in The New York Times, 8 June 1864.

Mahon, Michael G. The Shenandoah Valley, 1861-1865: The Destruction of the Granary of the Confederacy. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 1999.  

Mahoney, Peter F., James Ryan, et. al. Ballistic Trauma: A Practical Guide, Second Edition, pp. 31-66, 91-121, 168-179, 356-395, 445-464, 535-540, 596-605. London, England: Springer-Verlag London Limited, 2005.

Mathews, Alfred and Austin N. Hungerford. History of the Counties of Lehigh and Carbon, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Everts & Richards, 1884.

Morning Call, The (obituary and other newspaper archives). Allentown, Pennsylvania: 1895-1920.

National Cemetery Administration. Burial Ledgers, multiple record groups. U.S. Department of the Army, Office of the Quartermaster General; U.S. Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs; and U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Washington, D.C.: 1861-1941.

New Bloomfield Times (Perry County, Pennsylvania), in Historic Newspapers Collection. U.S. Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.: 1840-1922.

New Jersey State Archives. Record of Officers and Men of New Jersey in the Civil War, 1861-1865, vol. 1: 4th Regiment, New Jersey Infantry, compiled in the Office of the Adjutant General. Published by authority of the Legislature, William S. Stryker, Adjutant General. Trenton, New Jersey: John L. Murphy, Steam Book & Job Printer, 1876.

Nay, Robert. “The Operational, social, and religious influences upon the Army Chaplain Field Manual, 1926-1952″ (A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Military Art and Science, Military History). Leavenworth, Kansas: Fort Leavenworth, 2008.

Otis, George A. Photographs of surgical cases and specimens / prepared by direction of the Surgeon General by George A. Otis. Washington, D.C.: Surgeon General’s Office, 1861-1865.

Packard, John H. A Manual of Minor Surgery. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1863.

“Past, Present, and Future in the City of Allentown, Pa.: Published under the auspices of the Board of Trade: Historical and Social Features, Natural, Mercantile, Manufacturing, Financial and Commercial Resources and Facilities Together with Representative Industries and Business Houses.” Allentown, Pennsylvania: Daily Chronicle and News, 1886.

Pennsylvania Department of Health. Pennsylvania Death Certificates (record group 11, series 11.90). Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1906-1972.

Pennsylvania State Archives. Registers of Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-1865, vol. 3: 40th-52nd Regiments (47th Regiment, 3 years service, May 1861-June 1865), {series #19.65}, in Records of the Department of Military and Veterans’ Affairs (RG-19). Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State Archives, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.

Pollard, Harvey, Chittari Shivakumar, et. al. “‘Soldier’s Heart’: A Genetic Basis for Elevated Cardiovascular Disease Risk Associated with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder,” in Frontiers in Neuromolecular Science, 23 September 2016. Switzerland: Frontiers Research Foundation.

Reading Eagle, in Google News Archives. Reading, Pennsylvania: 1880-1920.

Reports of Lieut. Col. Tilghman H. Good, Forty-seventh Pennsylvania Infantry,” in Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, 1861-1865 (Microfilm M262). Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration.

“Review of the Armies: Special Dispatch to the New York Times.” Washington, D.C. and New York: The New York Times, 23 May 1865.

Roll of Honor (No. XIV): Names of Soldiers Who, in Defence [sic] of the American Union, Suffered Martyrdom in the Prison Pens throughout the South, in Quartermaster General’s Office, General Orders No. 7, February 20 1868. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1868.

Salisbury Prison Camp Records (see “Roll of Honor (No. XIV): Names of Soldiers who, in Defence [sic] of the American Union, Suffered Martyrdom…” above).

Sartin, J. S. Infectious Diseases During the Civil War: The Triumph of the ‘Third Army,’ in Clinical Infectious, Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, vol. 18, no. 4, 1 April 1993, pp. 580-584. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press.

Sauers, Richard. Advance the Colors: Pennsylvania Civil War Battle Flags, vol. 1. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Capitol Preservation Committee, 1 June 1998.

Schaadt, James L. “Company I, First Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers: A Memoir of Its Service for the Union in 1861,” in The Penn Germania: A Popular Journal of German History and Ideals in the United States, vol. 1, no. 1. Lititz and Cleona, Pennsylvania: H.W. Kriebel, editor. Holzapfel Publishing Co, 1912.

Schmidt, Lewis G. A Civil War History of the 47th Regiment of Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteers. Allentown, Pennsylvania: Self-published, 1986.

Scott, Robert N., editor. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1880-1901.

Smart, Charles and Joseph K. Barnes. The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1870-1880.

Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War. Officers of Kilpatrick Post No. 39, Grand Army of the Republic, Department of Michigan. Michigan: Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War, Department of Michigan, 1882-1924.

“SOUTH CAROLINA.; Military Organization of the Department of South Carolina.” New York, New York: The New York Times, 9 August 1865.

Staubach, Lieutenant Colonel James C. “Miami During the Civil War: 1861-65,” in Tequesta: The Journal of the Historical Association of Southern Florida, LIII, 31-62. Miami, Florida: Historical Museum of Southern Florida, 1993.

Stegall, Joel T. Salisbury Prison: North Carolina’s Andersonville.” Fayetteville, North Carolina: North Carolina Civil War & Reconstruction History Center, 13 September 2018.

Sunbury American and Shamokin Journal, in Historic Newspapers Collection. U.S. Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.: 1840-1922.

“The Civil War Bands,” in Band Music from the Civil War Era. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Library of Congress, retrieved from LOC website, September 2015.

“The Exchange of Prisoners.; The Cartel Agreed Upon by Gen. Dix for the United States, and Gen. Hill for the Rebels. Supplementary Articles.” New York: The New York Times, 6 October 1862.

The Sanitary Commission of the United States Army: A Succinct Narrative of Its Works and Purposes. New York: Benefit of the United States Sanitary Commission, 1864.

“The Smell of Ether, the Odor of Blood,” in Trauma and Surgery, in To Bind Up the Nation’s Wounds. Silver Spring, Maryland: National Museum of Health and Medicine, retrieved online 27 March 2016.

Thoms, Alston V., principal investigator and editor, and David O. Brown, Patricia A. Clabaugh, J. Philip Dering, et. al., contributing authors. Uncovering Camp Ford: Archaeological Interpretations of a Confederate Prisoner-of-War Camp in East Texas. College Station, Maryland: Center for Ecological Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, Texas A & M University.

U.S. Adjutant General’s Office (RG 94). Registers of Deaths of Volunteers. Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 1861-1865.

U.S. Adjutant General’s Office (RG 94). Returns From U.S. Military Posts (microfilm M617). Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 1861-1865.

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (RG 15). Historical Register of National Homes for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers (microfilm M1749). Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 1866-1938.

U.S. National Archives. General Index to Pension Files (T288). Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 1861-1934.

U.S. Office of the Quartermaster General (RG 92). Applications for Headstones for U.S. Military Veterans (microfilm M1916). Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 1925-1941.

U.S. Office of the Quartermaster General (RG 92). Card Records of Headstones Provided for Deceased Union Civil War Veterans, 1879-1903, in U.S. National Archives (microfilm M1845). Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 1996.

Wert, Jeffry D. From Winchester to Cedar Creek: The Shenandoah Campaign of 1864. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 1997.

Resources:

47th Pennsylvania Volunteers’ Virtual Cemetery. Find A Grave (online resource).

American Battlefield Trust. Washington, D.C. and Hagerstown, MD.

Ancestry.com. Provo, Utah.

Andersonville National Historic Site (Confederate Army prisoner of war camp). Andersonville, Georgia.

Ashland Area Historic Preservation Society. Ashland, Pennsylvania.

Band Music from the Civil War Era. U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Camp Curtin Historical Society and Civil War Roundtable. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Camp Ford Historic Park. Tyler, Texas.

Cane River Creole National Historic Park. Louisiana.

Cane River National Heritage Area. Natchitoches, Louisiana.

Casey’s Infantry Tactics, vol. 1. New York, New York.

Civil War Grave Registrations Collection (Whitehall Township Public Library, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania). State Library of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Civil War Veterans’ Card File, 1861-1865. Pennsylvania State Archives. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Coates Brass Band: The 47th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Regiment Band. Easton, Pennsylvania and Key West, Florida.

Daughters of Union Veterans of the Civil War, 1861-1865. Springfield, Illinois.

Display of Lieutenant Christian S. Beard’s Sword. Rose Hill Mansion. Bluffton, South Carolina.

Fold3 Historical Military Records. Lindon, Utah.

Fort Jefferson, Dry Tortugas National Park. Dry Tortugas, Florida.

Fort Zachary Taylor Historic State Park. Florida State Parks. Key West, Florida.

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Historic Newspapers Collection. U.S. Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.

Journey Through Hallowed Ground, The. Waterford, Virginia.

National Civil War Museum. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

National Museum of Civil War Medicine. Frederick, Maryland.

Nationwide Gravesite Locator. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Washington, D.C.

Northumberland County Historical Society. Sunbury, Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania Capitol Preservation Committee. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania Heritage Foundation and Pennsylvania Heritage Magazine. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Records of the Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, 1861-1935. Pennsylvania State Archives (RG-19). Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Reuben S. Gardner Papers, 1861-1866. Pennsylvania State Archives (Manuscript Group 55). Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Salisbury National Cemetery. Salisbury, North Carolina.

Schuylkill County Historical Society. Pottsville, Pennsylvania.

Shenandoah Valley Battlefields Foundation. New Market, Virginia.

Smith County Historical Society. Tyler, Texas.

Soldiers and Sailors Database. U.S. National Park Service. Washington, D.C.

Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

South Carolina Historical Society. Charleston, South Carolina.

The Dix-Hill Cartel of 1862 (rules for prisoner of war exchange between the United States and the Confederate States of America), in “The Exchange of Prisoners.; The Cartel Agreed Upon by Gen. Dix for the United States, and Gen. Hill for the Rebels. Supplementary Articles.” New York, New York: The New York Times, 6 October 1862.

U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center. Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Washington, D.C.

U.S. National Library of Medicine (Digital Collections), U.S. National Institutes of Health. Bethesda, Maryland.

Union Army Uniforms and Insignia of the Civil War: Index to the Links and Supplemental Discussions Related to the 1861 U.S. Army Uniform Regulations, compiled by Howard G. Lanham, M.D.

The Zouave Drill: Being a Complete Manual of Arms for the Use of the Rifled Musket, with Either the Percussion Cap, or Maynard Primer Containing Also the Complete Manual of the Sword and Sabre. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.